Communities / Organisations
People who engage in illegal gambling or collect bets illegally. The Mandarin term “卜基” is a transliteration of the English word “bookie”.
A bookmaker, or bookie is a person whose job is to collect bets, calculate odds, and pay out winnings. The term "bookmaker" was originally translated as “造书者” (a person who produces books).
One belief is that bookies were related to horse racing and betting activities which were popular in the United Kingdom in the early 20th century.
It is believed that there are several possible reasons why the term “造书者” is connected to gambling. One belief is that it comes from the facial expressions of gamblers as they record details of their bets in a small book, which looks as if they are busy producing a book. Another belief is that a large number of the books used to record bets had to be manufactured as there were too many bets to be recorded.
There are also several possible reasons why bookmakers are called "卜基 ”. One belief is that they were so named because the character "卜" is used in relation to an ancient form of divination using oracle bones, while the character "基 ” refers to the basis of all things, reflecting the belief that bookies were able to predict the future. Another belief is that this term was preferred over the term “造书者” because its second character, "书", is pronounced the same as "输" (to lose), which was thought to be inauspicious.
The Government has taken strict measures to stop bookies from engaging in illegal gambling operations and betting. According to the Betting Act, anyone who places a bet with illegal gambling operators shall be fined an amount not exceeding $5,000 or sentenced to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or both. If found guilty, any person who accepts bets shall be liable to a fine of not less than $20,000 and not more than $200,000 and shall be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.
The widespread use of the internet has worsened the situation of online betting. To tackle the issue, the government has implemented the Remote Gambling Act, which has been in effect since February 2015. Apart from those provided by Singapore Pools and the Singapore Turf Club, any other remote gambling activities are deemed illegal. Anyone found to be involved in such remote gambling activities, including gamblers, betting intermediaries and operators, will be deemed to have committed a crime.
外围马、外围马集团 (Hong Kong, Malaysia)
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